Representation Simulation System corresponds to a Cellular Stigmergic System and vice versa.

A  Representation Simulation System is a complex of interacting, reflecting, and associated representations and representational functions. This simulation does not have to be coherent or continuous.  It can have incoherent aspects and discontinuities.  All of the varieties of human and animal experiences are examples of their representational simulation.  

The reason the simulation is a system is because representations and representational functions both constrain and produce representation making and association.  Object permanence is an example of representational development that both constrains and produces further representations.  Truth values and computational limits are also examples of both the productive and constraint features of representational systems.  

A Representation Simulation System is instantiated by a Cellular Stigmergic System.  The Cellular Stigmergic System is the molecular processes and structures of the cell and the stigmergic effects the groups and structures of the cells have on cellular functions.  The cellular stigmergic system is primarily the nervous system.  

The Cellular Stigmergic System constrains and produces representations.  One of example of both constraint and production is color vision.  We do not see colors for infrared wavelengths of light though our bodies responds to them, and our vision system does not discriminate luminance well.  But our vision system is good at distinguishing contrasts and provides a rich RGB produced color experience. [The Science of Color Ch. 6: The Physiology of Color Vision Peter Lennie 2003 ]

One feature of representation is that it is always going on.  The cellular system must be in a constant activity to maintain both the homeostatic processes of the cells but also instantiate and make new representations to maintain the homeostatic processes of the multicellular organism.  If the cellular system is altered, the simulation will be altered.  If the representations of the simulation are altered, the cellular system is altered.  This is the pluralistic nature of instantiation.

This causal pathway of representational action occur because of the structure of the Cellular Stigmergic System.  In the CSS, certain structures which instantiate representations originate stigmergic action in cells.  These are meta structures that tie into many other cellular networks and cellular structures and act as internal inputs into the whole Cellular Stigmergic System.  For instance, certain cells produce molecules released into the body like ephinephrine as a response to signals received from nervous system cells.   This happens In the same way that inputs from sensory cells act as inputs to the Cellular Stigmergic System (brain).  Because representation is a constant activity, it takes only a small amount of bias in one structure to have an effect on the whole simulation and thus on the whole Cellular Stigmergic System.  Or a small amount of activity by cells may make no change to an organisms system in the large.  In ordinary parlance, it depends on the state of the organism. 


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Structures form as a side-effect of function, of interaction between low level functions of cells.  in the case of biology, structures of biology form from the interaction between molecules, between proteins and dna, and then between membranes and fluid spaces.  the functional behavior of molecular interactions, particularly of proteins, leads to the formation of structures that themselves may act.  For example,  a chemical interaction produces flagella formation and then another chemical induces changes of flagella rotation. But these motor actions are a side-effect of the molecular interaction, the molecular functions.  Introduction to Systems Biology  Uri Alon 2007]

Why are cellular structures side-effects?   There is no "force" that would lead to the production of structures on the cell; there is no external program that makes membrane structures.  There are only molecular interactions occurring in cells.  Thus structures must be understood as side-effects of biochemistry.  This side-effect quality of structure formation is how cellular structures are created, and it is also how inter-cellular structures are created.  Cellular structures are not produced from goal directed actions, but are side-effects of the functional activity of the molecular interactions themselves.  The cell itself is such a side-effect.   

These molecular functions interact to maintain homeostasis of a fluid space, a space is contained by another molecular structure, the cell membrane. The longer lasting homeostatic structures are able to produce wider and wider variations of side-effects that enhance the homeostasis of the cellular environment of molecular functions through the process of natural selection.  Once homeostasis of molecular interactions is achieved, as we see in cells, the homeostatic nature of the cell becomes a source of causation and is not a causal terminal.

In single celled organisms, the cell itself is a causal generator.  the configuration of the molecules and the balance of their interaction produce causal action, as in the case of movement produced by flagella rotation.   It is at this stage of biological development that representational functions are instantiated by the non-represenatational processes of molecular interaction in the cell.  For instance, the cell moves towards nutrient sources and away from toxins.  The cell engages in representational action without making representations of the things it is interacting with.  ie. a cell does not have a concept of nutrient or toxin.  It is the steady-state fluctuation of proteins and molecules which generate flagella rotation or counter-rotation which induce directed movement.  This movement is non-conscious.  But the fact the movement is directed by changing internal conditions of the cell demonstrates that the movement is representational. To maintain homeostasis the cell produces representational actions (but not representations as products or objects).  

With groups of cells, we see organisms that create structures that solve representational problems.  Like the representational functions of single cells, these cell structures are side-effects of individual molecular functions in the cell which offer greater survival outcomes for the cell or cell group at large.  For example cells differentiate to form multi-cellular bodies with certain features.  Morphological features are side-effects determined by the molecular functions of the homeostatic process of the cell.  Examples of these kinds of features are  beetle shell patterns, camouflage, and body morphology.   [Introduction to Systems Biology  Uri Alon 2007].  

Cells form structures which are themselves representations of things.  In this way the body of the organism can respond to those structures as if the things those structures represented were environmental conditions.  This is when organisms develop a nervous systems, where the nervous systems instantiates a simulation, a representational simulation, of the world the organism inhabits.   The organism interacts with and responds to it's representations.  That is, the organism responds to the (neurological) structures and interactions it creates as if those structures were chemical interactions in the local environment of the cellular world.  The cells only interact in their local environment.  Because the cells themselves differentiate and inter-represent themselves, they can act as if there is a larger world by reflecting the larger world onto their own local cellular structures and interactions.   

It is only at this point in a multicellular organism that the organism responds to representational objects, to ideas and is not merely engaged in representational functions.  The way to measure this point is to introduce illusions.  If an organism responds to an illusion, especially an illusion over time, then the organism has representational objects and ideas which it instantiates with it's nervous system. 

For example, yelling fire in a theater produces a behavior not unlike an actual fire.  however, yelling fire is an illusion.  Many light sensing organisms respond to shadows as threats.  Such threat response behavior is an example of responding to an idea and not to an actual thing.    shadow as threat.   shadow ; threat = threat -> producing threat response behavior in functional terms.   this is idea as action.  It should be possible to stimulate the nervous systems of these organism directly to act as if their were a shadow experience and thus elicit threat response behavior.  

Once an organism has ideas, then those ideas can produce actions.  the converse is also true, once an organism can have ideas, actions can produce ideas in the organism.  

But where are the ideas?  The ideas, just as the actions, are embodied by the cellular structures the organism creates.  ideas are embodied in neurological structures.  Neurological structures, networks of cells,  are formed to produce action in the various nodes.  The network structure and individual node structure induces functional behavior of those nodes.  

Actions, as ideas are also embodied in the nervous systems.  For instance, Learning to swing a bat, or to walk, are functional ideas that the nervous system embodies to engage in those actions.  A dancer or a gymnast has many more embodied nervous systems structures to engage in a wider variety of motor actions than a toddler.  And the dancer has many more ideas about motor actions and how to arrange motor actions and how to move than an ordinary person.  Thus the word "arabesque"  is an idea that corresponds to specific motor actions for a dancer.  

When a multicellular organism is creating and interacting with it's neurological cell structures that instantiate representations, that is when there is a representational simulation system.  The organism will continue to respond and interact with molecular level phenomena and many of these phenomena also become inputs and outputs into the neurological structures and show up as ideas and objects in the representational simulation.    eg.  lightwaves interact in the retinal cells which generate inter cellular signals to neural cells that produce color perception because of the cell structures and cellular structures which instantiate the representations of color.  But also, novels can induce experiences that produce a release of adrenaline.

But it is important to understand that the Cellular Stigmergic System instantiates a simulation system.  Sensory substitution is a well established process demonstrating that the brain instantiates a simulation of it's environment and can do so from alternate inputs. eg. the experience of "seeing" can be obtained in other ways such as Tactile vision substitution via the tongue.   [Cross-modal plasticity revealed by electrotactile stimulation of the tongue in the congenitally blind   Maurice Ptito1,2, Solvej M. Moesgaard1, Albert Gjedde1 and Ron Kupers1]

Correspondingly, color blindness is when a wavelength of light produces not retinal cell change and hence the affected cone does not signal other neurons because the wavelength produces no chemical changes in the retinal cell. Because their is no receptive differentiation in the cells, there can be no structural developments to those different wavelengths to discriminate between red and green for instance.  It is the structural representation of cellular/sensory inputs which are the representations of colors.  

A demonstration of the interplay between the a system of representational simulation and the cellular system would be to test the color perception of painters and artists to the color perception of lay persons. If color perception of artists and lay people is finer and more nuanced do we also see more developed structures in the cortex of these individuals when compared to lay participants?  This would demonstrate that the activities of painters and artists developed neurological structures providing greater color perception than the lay person - the simulation processes produces cellular changes in the organism.  This kind of phenomena is well documented for language development.